TEI by Example Module 7: Critical Editing Ron Van den Branden Edward Vanhoutte Melissa Terras Association for Literary and Linguistic Computing (ALLC) Centre for Data, Culture and Society, University of Edinburgh, UK Centre for Digital Humanities (CDH), University College London, UK Centre for Computing in the Humanities (CCH), King’s College London, UK Centre for Scholarly Editing and Document Studies (CTB) , Royal Academy of Dutch Language and Literature, Belgium
Centre for Scholarly Editing and Document Studies (CTB) Royal Academy of Dutch Language and Literature Koningstraat 18 9000 Gent Belgium
Edward Vanhoutte Melissa Terras
Centre for Scholarly Editing and Document Studies (CTB) , Royal Academy of Dutch Language and Literature, Belgium Centre for Scholarly Editing and Document Studies (CTB) , Royal Academy of Dutch Language and Literature, Belgium Gent
Centre for Scholarly Editing and Document Studies (CTB) Royal Academy of Dutch Language and Literature Koningstraat 18 9000 Gent Belgium

Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 3.0 License

9 July 2010
TEI By Example. Edward Vanhoutte editor Ron Van den Branden editor Melissa Terras editor

Digitally born

TEI By Example offers a series of freely available online tutorials walking individuals through the different stages in marking up a document in TEI (Text Encoding Initiative). Besides a general introduction to text encoding, step-by-step tutorial modules provide example-based introductions to eight different aspects of electronic text markup for the humanities. Each tutorial module is accompanied with a dedicated examples section, illustrating actual TEI encoding practise with real-life examples. The theory of the tutorial modules can be tested in interactive tests and exercises.

en-GB integrated examples in a single file
Module 7: Critical Editing
Emily Dickinson: Faith is a Fine Invention

The following example is a critical edition of Emily Dickinson’s poem Faith is a Fine Invention, encoded and made available by the University of Maryland University Libraries.

In this example, 7 different versions of a 4-line poem are encoded using the parallel segmentation method. Each apparatus entry (app) contains different rdg elements documenting the variants occurring in the different text versions. Notice how the choice for equal rdg elements (instead of one preferred reading, encoded in a lem element), and the use of the parallel segmentation method abolish the notion of a base text.

The different witnesses are listed in a listWit element inside the front section of the text. Each witness definition inside witness marks its corresponding sigil in an xml:id attribute. In the final line, a page break is recorded with pb. Its ed attribute is used to identify the specific edition where this page breaks occurs: the text witness identified as l1894. Notice, how this could have been expressed even more formally with the edRef attribute, which takes a pointer to an edition identified elsewhere: pb facs="#image1" edRef="#l1894". For this page in that edition, a digital facsimile is provided by means of the global facs attribute.

See for a discussion of the facs attribute.
"Faith is a fine invention" Emily Dickinson Jarom McDonald Text encoding Lara Vetter Proofing The Versioning Machine project

This poem is available only for demonstration purposes. It was created as part of a research project to experiment with ways of displaying multiple witnesses of a TEI-encoded poem using XML, XSLT and JavaScript.

See Witness List.

Test document for versioning machine project. Marked-up collation of three manuscript witnesses: A 660, H 201, and H 72, and four early print witnesses: Poems (1891)--XXX, Letters (1894)--p. 191, Complete Poems (1924)--LVI, and Life and Letters (1926)--p. 227.

DTD constructed from TEI prose base with tagsets for linking, figures, analysis, transcr, textcrit.

A 660, verse embedded in letter to Samuel Bowles. H 201, fascicle version of poem. H 72, fascicle version of poem. Published as poem XXX in the second volume of Todd and Higginson's Poems of Emily Dickinson. Letter to Samuel Bowles published in Todd's edition of Dickinson's letters. Published as poem LVI in Martha Dickinson Bianchi's Complete Poems of Emily Dickinson. Letter to Samuel Bowles published in Bianchi's The Life and Letters of Emily Dickinson.
"Faith" Faith FAITH is a fine invention When For Gentlemen gentlemen can who see see ! - ; , But Microscopes Microscopes microscopes are prudent In an Emergency emergency . !
Encoding of several versions of Emily Dickinson’s poem Faith is a Fine Invention for the Versioning Machine (Dickinson 1891). TEI XML source available from .
Christopher Marlowe: Edward II

The following example is a fragment of a critical edition of Christopher Marlowe’s play Edward II, encoded and made available by the Perseus Digital Library.

This example illustrates the critical encoding of a drama work. The variantEncoding element in the TEI header specifies that an internal, parallel segmented apparatus is used for the encoding of textual variation. The (many) text witnesses that are included in the edition are identified in a listWit section in the front matter of the edition. Although more detailed information is lacking (the header section of the original file is rather incomplete, and hence left out from this example), the location of the witness definitions in the front matter may suggest that this critical edition has been digitised from an existing print original. Each witness is described in a witness element and provided with an xml:id attribute specifying the sigil that will be used in the edition to refer to this text witness. One subgroup of text witnesses is identified in a nesting listWit element: the D sigil will be used to refer to both Dyce editions collectively.

Using a parallel segmented apparatus, the actual text contains all invariant text that is shared among all witnesses, while the variants are captured in app elements at the exact places where they occur.

Although a full description of this edition is not available, this example can illustrate what information can be inferred from a parallel segmented apparatus. First, the notion of a base text seems to have been adopted for this edition, as can be gathered from the use of lem elements. Without more information, however, it is impossible to tell what text witness has been adopted as base text, because most lem element don’t have any wit information. Moreover, those lemmas with explicit sigla in a wit attribute contradict each other: some refer to witness Q2, others to Q4. Some app elements don’t have a lem reading: this may either be a mistake, or suggest that this variant does not occur in the base text (but then, the occurrence of empty rdg elements would suggest that empty lem elements would be used in these cases). Apparently, only those text witnesses whose text differs from that of the base text have been recorded in wit attributes of the concerned rdg elements. One apparatus entry contains two groups of readings: yong you

The grouping reading suggests that all text witnesses have the yong variant, except for the Ox, R, and Q3 witnesses. Its embedded app element then seems to tacitly adopt the reading of the Ox and R witnesses (you) as lemma, while this reading is entirely missing from the Q3 witness.

Complete Works, ed. Bowers, 1973 Quarto 1, 1594 Quarto 2, 1598 Quarto 3, 1612 Quarto 4, 1622 Old Plays, ed. Dodsley, 1744 Old Plays, ed. Dodsley, ed. Reed,1780 Ancient British Drama, ed. Sir Walter Scott, 1810 Edward the Second, sold by J. Chappell, Jr., 1818 Edward the Second, ed. William Oxberry, 1818 Old Plays, Dodsley, ed. Collier, 1825 Works, Robinson, 1826 Works, Dyce 1, 1850 Works, Dyce 2, 1858 Works, Cunningham, 1870 Works, Bullen, 1885 Works, Tucker Brooke, 1910 Edward the Second, Briggs, 1914 Edward the Second, Malone Society Reprints, ed. W. W. Greg, 1925 Edward the Second, Methuen, ed. Charlton and Waller, 1933 Plays, ed. Kirschbaum, 1962 Plays, ed. Ribner, 1963 Edward the Second, ed. Gill, 1967 transcript in Dyce copy of Q2 Broughton in BM copy of Robinson Collier in BM copy of Dyce1
Act Four, Scene Two Enter the Queene and her sonne. Queene A boye, our friends do faile us all in Fraunce, The lords are cruell, and the king unkinde, What shall we doe goe ? Prince Madam, returne to England, And please my father well, and then a Fig For all my unckles frienship here in Fraunce . , I warrant you, ile winne his highnes quicklie, A He Dd1- loves me better than a thousand Spencers. Queene A boye, thou art deceivde at least in this, To thinke that we can yet be tun'd together, No, no, we jarre too farre. Unkinde , unkinde Valoys, Unhappie Isabell, when Fraunce rejects, whether whither , O whether whither doost must thou bend thy steps ? . Enter sir John of Henolt. Sir John Madam, what cheere? Queene A good sir John of Henolt, Never so cheereles, nor so farre distrest. Sir John I heare sweete lady of the kings unkindenes, But droope not madam, noble mindes contemne Despaire: will your grace with me to Henolt, And there stay times advantage with your sonne? How say you my Lord, will you go with your friends, And shake off all our your fortunes equallie ? . Prince So pleaseth the Queene my mother, me it likes . , The king of England, nor not the court of Fraunce, Shall have heave me from my gratious mothers side, Till I be strong enough to breake a staffe, And then have at the proudest Spencers head. Sir John Well said my lord. Queene Oh my sweet hart, how do I mone thy wrongs wrong , Yet triumphe in the hope of thee my joye? Ah sweete sir John, even to the utmost verge of Europe, or on the shore of Tanaise, Will we We will with thee to Henolt, so we will . , The Marques is a noble Gentleman, His grace I dare presume will welcome me, But who what are these? Enter Edmund [earle of Kent] and Mortimer. Kent Edm Madam, long may you live, Much happier then your friends in England England do. Queene Lord Edmund and lord Mortimer alive ? , Welcome to Fraunce: the newes was heere my lord, That you were dead, or very neare your death. Mortimer ju. Lady, the last was truest of the twaine, But Mortimer reservde for better hap, Hath shaken off the thraldome of the tower, And lives t' to advance your standard good my lord. Prince How meane you, and the king my father lives ? No my lord Mortimer, not I not so , I trow. Queene Not sonne, why not? I would it were no worse, But gentle lords, friendles we are in Fraunce. Mortimer ju. Mounsier le Grand le Grand , a noble friend of yours, Tould us at our arrivall all the newes, How hard the nobles, how unkinde the king Hath shewed himself: but madam, right makes roome, Where weapons a so Dd1- want won't wont , and though a many friends Are made away, as Warwick, Lancaster, And others of our partie part and faction our faction , Yet have we friends, assure your grace , in England England , Would cast up cappes, and clap their hands for joy, To see us there appointed for our foes. Kent Edm Would all were well, and Edward well reclaimd, For Englands honor, peace, and quietnes. Mortimer ju. But by the sword, my lord, it must be deserv'd earn'd . The king will nere forsake his flatterers. Sir John My Lords of England, sith the ungentle king Of Fraunce refuseth to give aide of armes, To this distressed Queene his sister heere, Go you with her to Henolt : , doubt yee not, We will finde comfort, money, men, and friends Ere long, to bid the English king a base abase . , How say How say'st Now say Now say yong you Prince, what thinke you of the match march ? Prince I thinke king Edward will out-run us all. Queene Nay sonne soune , not so, and you must not discourage Your friends that are so forward in your aide. Kent Edm Sir John of Henolt, pardon us I pray, These comforts that you give our wofull queene, Binde us in kindenes all at your commaund. Queene Yea gentle brother, and the God of heaven, Prosper your happie motion good sir John. Mortimer ju. This noble gentleman, forward in armes, Was borne I see to be our anchor hold . , Sir John of Henolt, be it thy renowne, That Englands Queene, and nobles in distresse, Have beene by thee restored and comforted. Sir John Madam along, and you my lord lords , with me, That Englands peeres may Henolts welcome see. [Exeunt.]
Adapted from a TEI P4 XML encoding of Christopher Marlowe’s play Edward II (Marlowe 1594). TEI XML source available from .
Dickinson, Emily. 1891. Faith is a Fine Invention. In Poems by Emily Dickinson, Volume 2. Edited by Mabel Loomis Todd and Thomas W. S. Higginson. Encoded and made available by the University of Maryland University Libraries, as sample for the Versioning Machine. Available online at . Marlowe, Christopher. Edward II. 1594. Encoded and made available by the Perseus Digital Library. Available online at .