Module 7: Critical Editing

7. Summary

This tutorial module has focused on the encoding of textual variation in different text witnesses. Although the determination of textual variation itself can depend on the editorial theories for the critical edition, and the TEI Guidelines offer many possibilities to encode textual variation, we'll conclude with a possible encoding as a critical edition of the text samples we used in this tutorial module. In this example, we chose for a parallel segmented internal apparatus, which could look as follows:
<TEI>
<teiHeader>
<fileDesc>
<!-- ... -->
<sourceDesc>
<listWit>
<witness xml:id="p2">
<bibl><editor>Sperberg-McQueen, M.</editor>; <editor>Burnard, L.</editor> (eds.). <title>TEI P2 Guidelines for the Encoding and Interchange of Machine Readable Texts Draft P2</title> (published serially 1992-1993); Draft Version <date when="1993-04-02">2 of April 1993</date>: <extent>19 chapters</extent>. Available from <ref target="http://www.tei-c.org/Vault/Vault-GL.html">http://www.tei-c.org/Vault/Vault-GL.html</ref> (accessed October 2008)</bibl>
</witness>
<witness xml:id="p3">
<bibl><editor>Sperberg-McQueen, C.M.</editor>;
<editor>Burnard, L.</editor>
(eds.).
<title>Guidelines for Electronic Text Encoding and Interchange. TEI P3. Revised reprint.</title>
<publisher>Text Encoding Initiative</publisher>: <pubPlace>Oxford</pubPlace>, <pubPlace>Providence</pubPlace>, <pubPlace>Charlottesville</pubPlace>, <pubPlace>Bergen</pubPlace>,
<date when="1999">1999</date>
</bibl>
</witness>
<witness xml:id="p4">
<bibl><editor>Sperberg-McQueen, C.M.</editor>;
<editor>Burnard, L.</editor>
(eds.).
<title>TEI P4: Guidelines for Electronic Text Encoding and Interchange. XML-compatible edition.</title>
<publisher>Text Encoding Initiative Consortium</publisher>: <pubPlace>Oxford</pubPlace>, <pubPlace>Providence</pubPlace>, <pubPlace>Charlottesville</pubPlace>, <pubPlace>Bergen</pubPlace>,
<date when="2002">2002</date>
</bibl>
</witness>
<witness xml:id="p5">
<bibl><editor>Sperberg-McQueen, C.M.</editor>;
<editor>Burnard, L.</editor>
(eds.).
<title>TEI P5: Guidelines for Electronic Text Encoding and Interchange. Revised and re-edited.</title>
<publisher>Text Encoding Initiative Consortium</publisher>: <pubPlace>Oxford</pubPlace>, <pubPlace>Providence</pubPlace>, <pubPlace>Charlottesville</pubPlace>, <pubPlace>Nancy</pubPlace>,
<date when="2005">2005</date>
</bibl>
</witness>
</listWit>
</sourceDesc>
</fileDesc>
<!-- ... -->
<encodingDesc>
<variantEncoding method="parallel-segmentation" location="internal"/>
</encodingDesc>
<!-- ... -->
</teiHeader>
<text>
<body>
<app>
<rdg wit="#p2">
<pb n="2"/>
</rdg>
<rdg wit="#p3 #p4">
<pb n="13"/>
</rdg>
<rdg wit="#p5">
<pb n="xxxi"/>
</rdg>
</app>
<head><app>
<rdg wit="#p2 #p3">Chapter 2 <lb/></rdg>
<rdg wit="#p5">v <lb/></rdg>
<rdg wit="#p4">2 </rdg>
</app>A
<app>
<rdg wit="#p2">GENTLE INTRODUCTION TO SGML</rdg>
<rdg wit="#p3">Gentle Introduction to SGML</rdg>
<rdg wit="#p4 #p5">Gentle Introduction to XML</rdg>
</app>
</head>
<app>
<rdg wit="#p4">
<note type="disclaimer">As originally published in previous editions of the Guidelines, this chapter provided a gentle introduction to 'just enough' SGML for anyone to understand how the TEI used that standard. Since then, the Gentle Guide seems to have taken on a life of its own independent of the Guidelines, having been widely distributed (and flatteringly imitated) on the web. In revising it for the present draft, the editors have therefore felt free to reduce considerably its discussion of SGML-specific matters, in favour of a simple presentation of how the TEI uses XML.</note>
</rdg>
<rdg wit="#p2 #p3 #p5"/>
</app>
<p>The encoding scheme defined by these Guidelines <app>
<rdg wit="#p2 #p3 #p5">is </rdg>
<rdg wit="#p4">may be </rdg>
</app>formulated <app>
<rdg wit="#p4">either </rdg>
<rdg wit="#p2 #p3 #p5"/>
</app>as an application of <app>
<rdg wit="#p2 #p3">a system known as the Standard Generalized </rdg>
<rdg wit="#p4">the ISO Standard Generalized </rdg>
<rdg wit="#p5">the Extensible </rdg>
</app>Markup Language <app>
<rdg wit="#p2">(SGML).<note place="foot"><bibl><editor>International Organization for Standardization</editor> , <title>ISO 8879: Information processing--Text and office systems--Standard Generalized Mark-up Language (SGML)</title> , ([<pubPlace>Geneva</pubPlace> ]: <publisher>ISO</publisher> , <date>1986</date> ).</bibl> Although widely said to be short for the surnames of its progenitors, the official expansion of this abbreviation is "Standard Generalized Markup Language."</note> SGML is an international standard </rdg>
<rdg wit="#p3">(SGML). <note place="foot">
<bibl><editor>International Organization for Standardization</editor> , <title>ISO 8879: Information processing - Text and office systems - Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML)</title> , ([<pubPlace>Geneva</pubPlace> ]: <publisher>ISO</publisher> , <date>1986</date> )</bibl>
</note> SGML is an international standard </rdg>
<rdg wit="#p4">(SGML)SGML)<note place="foot">
<bibl><editor>International Organization for Standardization</editor> , <title>ISO 8879: Information processing - Text and office systems - Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML)</title> , ([<pubPlace>Geneva</pubPlace> ]: <publisher>ISO</publisher> , <date>1986</date> )</bibl>
</note>or of the more recently developed W3C Extensible Markup Language (XML)XML)<note place="foot">
<bibl>
<editor>World Wide Web Consortium</editor>
:
<title>Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0</title>
, available from
<ref target="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml">http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml</ref>
</bibl>
</note>. Both SGML and XML are widely-used </rdg>
<rdg wit="#p5">(XML) (Bray et al. (eds.) (2006)). XML is widely used </rdg>
</app>for the definition of device-independent, system-independent methods of <app>
<rdg wit="#p2 #p3">representing </rdg>
<rdg wit="#p4 #p5">storing and processing </rdg>
</app>texts in electronic form<app>
<rdg wit="#p2 #p3">. This chapter presents a brief tutorial guide to its main features, for those readers who have not encountered it before. For a more technical account of TEI practice in using </rdg>
<rdg wit="#p4">; XML being in fact a simplification or derivation of SGML. In the present chapter we introduce informally the basic concepts underlying such markup languages and attempt to explain to </rdg>
<rdg wit="#p5">. It is now also the interchange and communication format used by many applications on the World Wide Web. In </rdg>
</app>the <app>
<rdg wit="#p2">SGML standard, see chapter 30, "TEI Conformance," [in separate fascicle]; for a more technical description of the subset of SGML </rdg>
<rdg wit="#p3">SGML standard, see chapter 28, "Conformance," on page 727. For a more technical description of the subset of SGML </rdg>
<rdg wit="#p4">reader encountering them for the first time how they are actually used in the TEI scheme. Except where the two are explicitly distinguished, references to XML in what follows may be understood to apply equally well to the TEI usage of SGML. a more technical account of For TEI practice see chapter 28 <hi>Conformance</hi> ; for a more technical description of the subset of SGML </rdg>
<rdg wit="#p5">present chapter we informally introduce some of its concepts and attempt to explain to the reader encountering them basic for the first time how and why they are </rdg>
</app>used <app>
<rdg wit="#p2 #p3 #p4">by</rdg>
<rdg wit="#p5">in</rdg>
</app> the TEI <app>
<rdg wit="#p2 #p3 #p4">encoding </rdg>
<rdg wit="#p5"/>
</app>scheme<app>
<rdg wit="#p2">, see chapter 39, "Formal Grammar for the TEI-Interchange-Format Subset of SGML," [in separate fascicle]</rdg>
<rdg wit="#p3">, see chapter 39, "Formal Grammar for the TEI-Interchange-Format Subset of SGML," on page 1247</rdg>
<rdg wit="#p4">, see chapter 39 <hi>Formal Grammar for the TEI-Interchange-Format Subset of SGML</hi></rdg>
<rdg wit="#p5">. More detailed technical accounts of TEI practice in this respect are provided in chapters <hi>23. Using the TEI</hi> , <hi>1. The TEI Infrastructure</hi> , and <hi>22. Documentation Elements</hi> of these Guidelines</rdg>
</app>.</p>
<p><app>
<rdg wit="#p2 #p3">SGML is an international standard for the description of marked-up electronic text. More exactly</rdg>
<rdg wit="#p4">XML is an extensible markup language used for the description of marked-up electronic text. More exactly</rdg>
<rdg wit="#p5">Strictly speaking</rdg>
</app>, <app>
<rdg wit="#p2 #p3">SGML</rdg>
<rdg wit="#p4 #p5">XML</rdg>
</app> is a <app>
<rdg wit="#p2 #p5">metalanguage</rdg>
<rdg wit="#p3 #p4">
<hi>metalanguage</hi>
</rdg>
</app>, that is, a <app>
<rdg wit="#p2 #p3 #p4">means of formally describing a language</rdg>
<rdg wit="#p5">language used to describe other languages</rdg>
</app>, in this case, <app>
<rdg wit="#p2">a markup language</rdg>
<rdg wit="#p3 #p4">a <hi>markup language</hi></rdg>
<rdg wit="#p5">markup languages</rdg>
</app>. <app>
<rdg wit="#p2 #p3">Before going any further we should define these terms. <milestone type="p"/></rdg>
<rdg wit="#p4 #p5"/>
</app>Historically, the word <app>
<rdg wit="#p2 #p5">markup</rdg>
<rdg wit="#p3 #p4">
<hi>markup</hi>
</rdg>
</app> has been used to describe annotation or other marks within a text intended to instruct a compositor or typist how a particular passage should be printed or laid out. Examples include wavy underlining to indicate boldface, special symbols for passages to be omitted or printed in a particular <app>
<rdg wit="#p2 #p3 #p4">font </rdg>
<rdg wit="#p5">font, </rdg>
</app>and so forth. As the formatting and printing of texts was automated, the term was <app>
<rdg wit="#p2">extend-ed </rdg>
<rdg wit="#p3 #p4 #p5">extended </rdg>
</app>to cover all sorts of special <app>
<rdg wit="#p2">markup codes </rdg>
<rdg wit="#p3">
<hi>markup codes</hi>
</rdg>
<rdg wit="#p4 #p5">codes </rdg>
</app>inserted into electronic texts to govern formatting, printing, or other processing.</p>
</body>
</text>
</TEI>