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Examples for Module 7: Critical Editing

2. Christopher Marlowe: Edward II

The following example is a fragment of a critical edition of Christopher Marlowe's Edward II, encoded and made available by the Perseus Digital Library.
This example illustrates the critical encoding of a drama work. The <variantEncoding/> element in the TEI header specifies that an internal, parallel segmented apparatus is used for the encoding of textual variation. The (many) text witnesses that are included in the edition are identified in a <listWit> section in the front matter of the edition. Although more detailed information is lacking, the location of the witness definitions in the front matter may suggest that this critical edition has been digitised from an existing print original. Each witness is described in a <witness> element and provided with an @xml:id attribute specifying the sigil that will be used in the edition to refer to this text witness. One subgroup of text witnesses is identified in a nesting <listWit> element: the D sigil will be used to refer to both Dyce editions collectively.
Using a parallel segmented apparatus, the actual text contains all invariant text that is shared among all witnesses, while the variants are captured in <app> elements at the exact places where they occur.
Although a full description of this edition is not available, this example can illustrate what information can be inferred from a parallel segmented apparatus. First, the notion of a base text seems to have been adopted for this edition, as can be gathered from the use of <lem> elements. Without more information, however, it is impossible to tell what text witness has been adopted as base text, because most <lem> element don't have any @wit information. Moreover, those lemmas with explicit sigla in a @wit attribute contradict each other: some refer to witness #Q2, others to #Q4. Some <app> elements don't have a <lem> reading: this may either be a mistake, or suggest that this variant does not occur in the base text (but then, the occurrence of empty <rdg> elements would suggest that empty <lem> elements would be used in these cases). Apparently, only those text witnesses whose text differs from that of the base text have been recorded in @wit attributes of the concerned <rdg> elements. One apparatus entry contains two groups of readings:
<app>
<lem>yong</lem>
<rdg wit="#Ox #R #Q3">
<app>
<lem>you</lem>
<rdg wit="#Q3"/>
</app>
</rdg>
</app>
The grouping reading suggests that all text witnesses have the yong variant, except for the #Ox, #R, and #Q3 witnesses. Its embedded <app> element then seems to tacitly adopt the reading of the #Ox and #R witnesses (you) as lemma, while this reading is entirely missing from the #Q3 witness.
<TEI xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" xmlns:math="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0">
<teiHeader>
<!-- ... -->
<encodingDesc>
<variantEncoding method="parallel-segmentation" location="internal"/>
</encodingDesc>
<!-- ... -->
</teiHeader>
<text>
<front>
<div>
<listWit>
<witness xml:id="Bow">
<bibl><title>Complete Works</title>, ed. Bowers, 1973</bibl>
</witness>
<witness xml:id="Q1">Quarto 1, 1594</witness>
<witness xml:id="Q2">Quarto 2, 1598</witness>
<witness xml:id="Q3">Quarto 3, 1612</witness>
<witness xml:id="Q4">Quarto 4, 1622</witness>
<witness xml:id="Dd1">
<bibl><title>Old Plays</title>, ed. Dodsley, 1744</bibl>
</witness>
<witness xml:id="Dd2">
<bibl><title>Old Plays</title>, ed. Dodsley, ed. Reed,1780</bibl>
</witness>
<witness xml:id="S">
<bibl><title>Ancient British Drama</title>, ed. Sir Walter Scott, 1810</bibl>
</witness>
<witness xml:id="Ch">
<bibl><title>Edward the Second</title>, sold by J. Chappell, Jr., 1818</bibl>
</witness>
<witness xml:id="Ox">
<bibl><title>Edward the Second</title>, ed. William Oxberry, 1818</bibl>
</witness>
<witness xml:id="Dd3">
<bibl><title>Old Plays</title>, Dodsley, ed. Collier, 1825</bibl>
</witness>
<witness xml:id="R">
<bibl><title>Works</title>, Robinson, 1826</bibl>
</witness>
<listWit xml:id="D">
<witness xml:id="D1">
<bibl><title>Works</title>, Dyce 1, 1850</bibl>
</witness>
<witness xml:id="D2">
<bibl><title>Works</title>, Dyce 2, 1858</bibl>
</witness>
</listWit>
<witness xml:id="C">
<bibl><title>Works</title>, Cunningham, 1870</bibl>
</witness>
<witness xml:id="B">
<bibl><title>Works</title>, Bullen, 1885</bibl>
</witness>
<witness xml:id="TB">
<bibl><title>Works</title>, Tucker Brooke, 1910</bibl>
</witness>
<witness xml:id="Bgs">
<bibl><title>Edward the Second</title>, Briggs, 1914</bibl>
</witness>
<witness xml:id="Gg">
<bibl><title>Edward the Second</title>, Malone Society Reprints, ed. W. W. Greg, 1925</bibl>
</witness>
<witness xml:id="M">
<bibl><title>Edward the Second</title>, Methuen, ed. Charlton and Waller, 1933</bibl>
</witness>
<witness xml:id="K">
<bibl><title>Plays</title>, ed. Kirschbaum, 1962</bibl>
</witness>
<witness xml:id="Ri">
<bibl><title>Plays</title>, ed. Ribner, 1963</bibl>
</witness>
<witness xml:id="Gl">
<bibl><title>Edward the Second</title>, ed. Gill, 1967</bibl>
</witness>
<witness xml:id="Q2MS">
<bibl>transcript in Dyce copy of Q2</bibl>
</witness>
<witness xml:id="Br">Broughton in BM copy of Robinson</witness>
<witness xml:id="Coll">Collier in BM copy of Dyce1 </witness>
</listWit>
</div>
</front>
<body>
<!-- ... -->
<div1 type="act" n="4">
<!-- ... -->
<div2 type="scene" n="2" org="uniform" sample="complete">
<head>Act Four, Scene Two</head>
<stage type="entrance">Enter the <name>Queene</name> and her sonne.</stage>
<sp who="quee">
<speaker>Queene</speaker>
<l>A boye, our friends do faile us all in <name>Fraunce,</name> </l>
<l>The lords are cruell, and the king unkinde,</l>
<l>What shall we <app>
<lem>doe</lem>
<rdg wit="#Q3">goe</rdg>
</app>?</l>
</sp>
<sp who="prin">
<speaker>Prince</speaker>
<l>Madam, returne to <name>England,</name></l>
<l>And please my father well, and then a Fig</l>
<l>For all my unckles frienship here in <name>Fraunce<app>
<lem>.</lem>
<rdg wit="#Q1 #Q2 #Q3 #Q4">,</rdg>
</app></name></l>
<l>I warrant you, ile winne his highnes quicklie,</l>
<l>
<app>
<lem>A</lem>
<rdg wit="#R #C">He Dd1-</rdg>
</app>
loves me better than a thousand
<name>Spencers.</name>
</l>
</sp>
<sp who="quee">
<speaker>Queene</speaker>
<l>A boye, thou art deceivde at least in this,</l>
<l>To thinke that we can yet be tun'd together,</l>
<l>No, no, we jarre too
<app>
<lem>farre. Unkinde</lem>
<rdg wit="#Q1 #Q2 #Q3 #Q4">, unkinde</rdg>
</app>
<name>Valoys,</name>
</l>
<l>Unhappie <name>Isabell,</name> when <name>Fraunce</name> rejects,</l>
<l><app>
<lem>whether</lem>
<rdg wit="#Q4 #Dd1 #Bgs">whither</rdg>
</app>, O
<app>
<lem>whether</lem>
<rdg wit="#Q4 #Dd1 #Bgs">whither</rdg>
</app>
<app>
<lem>doost</lem>
<rdg wit="#D">must</rdg>
</app>
thou bend thy steps<app>
<lem wit="#Q4">?</lem>
<rdg wit="#Q1 #Q2 #Q3">.</rdg>
</app></l>
</sp>
<stage type="entrance">Enter sir <name>John</name> of <name>Henolt</name>.</stage>
<sp who="sirj">
<speaker>Sir John</speaker>
<l>Madam, what cheere?</l>
</sp>
<sp who="quee">
<speaker>Queene</speaker>
<l>A good sir <name>John</name> of <name>Henolt,</name></l>
<l>Never so cheereles, nor so farre distrest.</l>
</sp>
<sp who="sirj">
<speaker>Sir John</speaker>
<l>I heare sweete lady of the kings unkindenes,</l>
<l>But droope not madam, noble mindes contemne</l>
<l>Despaire: will your grace with me to <name>Henolt,</name></l>
<l>And there stay times advantage with your sonne?</l>
<l>How say you my Lord, will you go with your friends,</l>
<l>And shake off all <app>
<lem>our</lem>
<rdg wit="#R">your</rdg>
</app> fortunes equallie<app>
<lem wit="#Q4">?</lem>
<rdg wit="#Q1 #Q2 #Q3">.</rdg>
</app></l>
</sp>
<sp who="prin">
<speaker>Prince</speaker>
<l>So pleaseth the Queene my mother, me it likes<app>
<lem>.</lem>
<rdg wit="#Q1 #Q2 #Q3 #Q4">,</rdg>
</app></l>
<l>The king of
<name>England,</name>
<app>
<lem>nor</lem>
<rdg wit="#Dd1 #Dd2 #S #Dd3">not</rdg>
</app>
the court of
<name>Fraunce,</name>
</l>
<l>Shall <app>
<lem>have</lem>
<rdg wit="#Ch #Br #Q2MS">heave</rdg>
</app> me from my gratious mothers side,</l>
<l>Till I be strong enough to breake a staffe,</l>
<l>And then have at the proudest <name>Spencers</name> head.</l>
</sp>
<sp who="sirj">
<speaker>Sir John</speaker>
<l>Well said my lord.</l>
</sp>
<sp who="quee">
<speaker>Queene</speaker>
<l>Oh my sweet hart, how do I mone thy <app>
<lem>wrongs</lem>
<rdg wit="#Dd2 #Dd3">wrong</rdg>
</app>,</l>
<l>Yet triumphe in the hope of thee my joye?</l>
<l>Ah sweete sir <name>John,</name> even to the utmost verge</l>
<l>of
<name>Europe,</name>
<app>
<lem>or</lem>
<rdg wit="#D">on</rdg>
</app>
the shore of
<name>Tanaise,</name>
</l>
<l>
<app>
<lem>Will we</lem>
<rdg wit="#R #C #B #K">We will</rdg>
</app>
with thee to
<name>Henolt,</name>
so we will<app>
<lem>.</lem>
<rdg wit="#Q1 #Q2 #Q3 #Q4">,</rdg>
</app></l>
<l>The Marques is a noble Gentleman, </l>
<l>His grace I <app>
<lem>dare</lem>
<rdg wit="#Dd1"/>
</app> presume will welcome me, </l>
<l>But <app>
<lem>who</lem>
<rdg wit="#Dd1">what</rdg>
</app> are these?</l>
</sp>
<stage type="entrance">Enter <name>Edmund</name> [earle of <name>Kent</name>] and <name>Mortimer</name>.</stage>
<sp who="kent">
<speaker>
<app>
<lem>Kent</lem>
<rdg wit="#Q1 #Q2 #Q3 #Q4">Edm</rdg>
</app>
</speaker>
<l>Madam, long may you live,</l>
<l>Much happier then your friends in <app>
<lem>
<name>England</name>
</lem>
<rdg wit="#Q1 #Q2 #Q3 #Q4">England</rdg>
</app> do.</l>
</sp>
<sp who="quee">
<speaker>Queene</speaker>
<l>Lord <name>Edmund</name> and lord <name>Mortimer</name> alive<app>
<lem>?</lem>
<rdg wit="#Q1 #Q2 #Q3 #Q4">,</rdg>
</app></l>
<l>Welcome to <name>Fraunce:</name> the newes was heere my lord,</l>
<l>That you were dead, or very neare your death.</l>
</sp>
<sp who="moyo">
<speaker>Mortimer <app>
<rdg wit="#Q1 #Q2 #Q3 #Q4">ju.</rdg>
</app></speaker>
<l>Lady, the last was truest of the twaine,</l>
<l>But <name>Mortimer</name> reservde for better hap,</l>
<l>Hath shaken off the thraldome of the tower,</l>
<l>And lives <app>
<lem>t'</lem>
<rdg wit="#Q3 #Q4 #S">to</rdg>
</app>advance your standard good my lord.</l>
</sp>
<sp who="prin">
<speaker>Prince</speaker>
<l>How meane you, and the king my father lives ?</l>
<l>No my lord <name>Mortimer,</name> <app>
<lem>not I</lem>
<rdg wit="#Ch">not so</rdg>
</app>, I trow.</l>
</sp>
<sp who="quee">
<speaker>Queene</speaker>
<l>Not sonne, why not? I would it were no worse,</l>
<l>But gentle lords, friendles we are in <name>Fraunce.</name></l>
</sp>
<sp who="moyo">
<speaker>Mortimer <app>
<rdg wit="#Q1 #Q2 #Q3 #Q4">ju.</rdg>
</app></speaker>
<l>Mounsier <name><app>
<lem>le Grand</lem>
<rdg wit="#Q1 #Q2 #Q3 #Q4">le Grand</rdg>
</app>,</name> a noble friend of yours,</l>
<l>Tould us at our arrivall all the newes,</l>
<l>How hard the nobles, how unkinde the king</l>
<l>Hath shewed himself: but madam, right makes roome,</l>
<l>Where weapons <app>
<lem>a</lem>
<rdg wit="#R #C">so Dd1-</rdg>
</app><app>
<lem>want</lem>
<rdg wit="#Dd1 #Dd2 #S #Ch #Dd3 #R">won't</rdg>
<rdg wit="#Ox #C">wont</rdg>
</app>, and though a many friends</l>
<l>Are made away, as <name>Warwick, Lancaster,</name></l>
<l>And others of our <app>
<lem>partie</lem>
<rdg wit="#D #C">part</rdg>
</app> and <app>
<lem>faction</lem>
<rdg wit="#Ch #Br #Q2MS">our faction</rdg>
</app>,</l>
<l>Yet have we friends, assure your grace<app>
<lem>,</lem>
<rdg wit="#Q1 #Q2 #Q3 #Q4"/>
</app> in
<app>
<lem>
<name>England</name>
</lem>
<rdg wit="#Q1 #Q2 #Q3 #Q4">England</rdg>
</app>
<app>
<rdg wit="#Q1 #Q2 #Q3 #Q4">,</rdg>
</app>
</l>
<l>Would cast up cappes, and clap their hands for joy,</l>
<l>To see us there appointed for our foes.</l>
</sp>
<sp who="kent">
<speaker>
<app>
<lem>Kent</lem>
<rdg wit="#Q1 #Q2 #Q3 #Q4">Edm</rdg>
</app>
</speaker>
<l>Would all were well, and <name>Edward</name> well reclaimd,</l>
<l>For <name>Englands</name> honor, peace, and quietnes. </l>
</sp>
<sp who="moyo">
<speaker>Mortimer <app>
<rdg wit="#Q1 #Q2 #Q3 #Q4">ju.</rdg>
</app></speaker>
<l>But by the sword, my lord, it must be <app>
<lem>deserv'd</lem>
<rdg wit="#Ch #Br #Q2MS">earn'd</rdg>
</app>.</l>
<l>The king will nere forsake his flatterers.</l>
</sp>
<sp who="sirj">
<speaker>Sir John</speaker>
<l>My Lords of <name>England,</name> sith the ungentle king</l>
<l>Of <name>Fraunce</name> refuseth to give aide of armes,</l>
<l>To this distressed Queene his sister heere,</l>
<l>Go you with her to <name>Henolt<app>
<lem>:</lem>
<rdg wit="#Q1 #Q2 #Q3 #Q4">,</rdg>
</app></name> doubt yee not,</l>
<l>We will finde comfort, money, men, and friends</l>
<l>Ere long, to bid the English king
<app>
<lem>a base</lem>
<rdg wit="#Q4 #Dd1 #Dd2 #S #Ch #Ox #Dd3 #R">abase</rdg>
</app>
<app>
<lem>.</lem>
<rdg wit="#Q1 #Q2 #Q3 #Q4">,</rdg>
</app>
</l>
<l>
<app>
<lem>How say</lem>
<rdg wit="#D">How say'st</rdg>
<rdg wit="#C">Now say</rdg>
<rdg type="qy" wit="#D">Now say</rdg>
</app>
<app>
<lem>yong</lem>
<rdg wit="#Ox #R #Q3">
<app>
<lem>you</lem>
<rdg wit="#Q3"/>
</app>
</rdg>
</app>
Prince, what thinke you of the
<app>
<lem>match</lem>
<rdg wit="#Dd1">march</rdg>
</app>
?</l>
</sp>
<sp who="prin">
<speaker>Prince</speaker>
<l>I thinke king <name>Edward</name> will out-run us all.</l>
</sp>
<sp who="quee">
<speaker>Queene</speaker>
<l>Nay <app>
<lem wit="#Q2">sonne</lem>
<rdg wit="#Q1">soune</rdg>
</app>, not so, and you must not discourage</l>
<l>Your friends that are so forward in your aide.</l>
</sp>
<sp who="kent">
<speaker>
<app>
<lem>Kent</lem>
<rdg wit="#Q1 #Q2 #Q3 #Q4">Edm</rdg>
</app>
</speaker>
<l>Sir <name>John</name> of<name> Henolt,</name> pardon us I pray,</l>
<l>These comforts that you give our wofull queene,</l>
<l>Binde us in kindenes all at your commaund.</l>
</sp>
<sp who="quee">
<speaker>Queene</speaker>
<l>Yea gentle brother, and the God of heaven,</l>
<l>Prosper your happie motion good sir <name>John.</name></l>
</sp>
<sp who="moyo">
<speaker>Mortimer <app>
<rdg wit="#Q1 #Q2 #Q3 #Q4">ju.</rdg>
</app></speaker>
<l>This noble gentleman, forward in armes,</l>
<l>Was borne I see to be our anchor hold<app>
<lem>.</lem>
<rdg wit="#Q1 #Q2 #Q3 #Q4">,</rdg>
</app></l>
<l>Sir <name>John</name> of <name>Henolt,</name> be it thy renowne,</l>
<l>That <name>Englands</name> Queene, and nobles in distresse,</l>
<l>Have beene by thee restored and comforted.</l>
</sp>
<sp who="sirj">
<speaker>Sir John</speaker>
<l>Madam along, and you my <app>
<lem>lord</lem>
<rdg wit="#D #B">lords</rdg>
</app><app>
<lem>,</lem>
<rdg wit="#Q1 #Q2 #Q3 #Q4"/>
</app> with me,</l>
<l>That <name>Englands</name> peeres may <name>Henolts</name> welcome see.</l>
</sp>
<stage type="exit">[Exeunt.]</stage>
</div2>
</div1>
</body>
</text>
</TEI>
[2]

Bibliography

[1] Based on a TEI P4 XML encoding of Dickinson, Emily. Faith is a Fine Invention. Encoded and made available by the University of Maryland University Libraries, as sample for the Versioning Machine. Available online at http://v-machine.org/samples/faith.xml
[2] Based on a TEI P4 XML encoding of Marlowe, Christopher. Edward II. Encoded and made available by the Perseus Digital Library. Available online at http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.03.0007
Want your examples here? If you happen to have any text samples that you want to share under a Creative Commons Share Alike license, please do get in touch!