TEI by Example. Module 6: Primary SourcesEdward VanhoutteRon Van den BrandenEdward VanhoutteRon Van den BrandenMelissa TerrasAssociation for Literary and Linguistic Computing (ALLC)Centre for Digital Humanities (CDH), University College London, UKCentre for Computing in the Humanities (CCH), King's College London, UKCentre for Scholarly Editing and Document Studies (CTB) , Royal Academy of Dutch Language and Literature, BelgiumCentre for Scholarly Editing and Document Studies (CTB)Royal Academy of Dutch Language and LiteratureKoningstraat 189000 GentBelgiumctb@kantl.beEdward VanhoutteMelissa TerrasRon Van den BrandenCentre for Scholarly Editing and Document Studies (CTB) , Royal Academy of Dutch Language and Literature, BelgiumCentre for Scholarly Editing and Document Studies (CTB) , Royal Academy of Dutch Language and Literature, BelgiumGentCentre for Scholarly Editing and Document Studies (CTB)Royal Academy of Dutch Language and LiteratureKoningstraat 189000 GentBelgium
Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 3.0 License
9 July 2010TEI By Example.Edward VanhoutteeditorRon Van den BrandeneditorMelissa Terraseditor
TEI By Example offers a series of freely available online tutorials walking individuals through the different stages in marking up a document in TEI (Text Encoding Initiative). Besides a general introduction to text encoding, step-by-step tutorial modules provide example-based introductions to eight different aspects of electronic text markup for the humanities. Each tutorial module is accompanied with a dedicated examples section, illustrating actual TEI encoding practise with real-life examples. The theory of the tutorial modules can be tested in interactive tests and exercises.
Examples for Module 6: Primary sources
Jeremy Bentham: JB/088/179
This manuscript page was written by the philosopher and jurist Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832).
This example encodes the prose text as a div inside the body of a text structure. It distinguishes between a main heading ([Limits]), and a subtitle (the phrase Repugnancy, what, in the right margin), by means of the type attribute on the head element. Since this is a prose text, the basic structural units are encoded as paragraphs (p), with line breaks encoded as lb/ where they occur. Note how the usage of lb/ is pointed out in a comment; although not the formal way to do it (that's what the tagUsage element in the header is for -- see TBE module 2. The TEI Header), it may serve as a valid reminder for future encoders. The sixth text line starts with a sequence of a deletion and addition: on is deleted (marked with the del tag), and replaced with emane (encoded as add). This sequence might as well have been encoded as a whole as a substitution, and wrapped in a subst element. This example features another interesting combination of deletion and addition on the penultimate line: the phrase A law which was started as a replacement for the phrase starting with Repugnancy. It was added above the line, but deleted again, without ever becoming an effective replacement. This is reflected in the encoding by encoding the addition first, but marking its contents as deleted:
Repugnancy A law which may
A final point of interest is the use of empty gap/ elements to indicate places where the transcriber has deliberately left out text. Often these are deletions that have been crossed out beyond readability. Note, how the reason for these omissions is not stated (which could be done in a reason attribute).
When two laws appear to disagree in their terms, it is a great
question is often made whether they are or are not repugnant. The
occasions on which it is brought upon the
is generally where the two laws in questiononemane the one of them from a legislature superiorwhich the other from a superior legislature. The question then
is in truth [properly speaking] a great question of
constitutional law; but since the word which is the subject of it is
a one of those which appears to be expressive of the aspect of a superventitiouslaw to a primordial one, it seems to have some claim to be
Hitherto the primordial lawprovision and the superventitious have been consider’d as
the emaning from the same authority source: so
long as this is the case the word repugnant may be looked upon as
synonymous to alterative. Repugnancy A law which may accordingly be simply revocative or reversive; and in
Encoding of Manuscripts of Jeremy Bentham, University College London Library:
JB/088/179, a manuscript encoded and made available by the Bentham Project of University College London (http://www.ucl.ac.uk/Bentham-Project/).
Walt Whitman: After the Argument
This manuscript, featuring an early version of the poem
After the Argument, was likely written in 1890 or early 1891, shortly before the poem's publication.
This example clearly illustrates how the TEI transcr module can be applied to verse texts as well. The entire poem is encoded inside lg type="poem", containing a heading (head) and two verse lines (l). In order to reflect the (typographic) segments of these lines, they are further divided into seg elements. As will be clear from the facsimile, this short manuscript features some complex editorial traces. Sequential deletions (del) and additions (add) are grouped into substitutions (subst). Moreover, inside the substitutions, the exact order of the editing interventions is specified by means of a sequence number in a seq attribute, making explicit that the deletions occurred before the additions.
The seq attribute is a more advanced concept documented in the TEI Guidelines, 11. Representation of Primary Sources. Note how this explicit sequence number is not strictly needed here, as deletions logically precede additions, and only one deletion is involved.
This example illustrates nicely how additions and deletions can nest. In both cases in the example, an addition contains further deletions. The deletions are characterised as overstrike and overwrite in the respective type attributes. The additions are characterised as insertion, overwrite, or unmarked; their place attributes recording that they occurred supralinear, over existing text, or inline.
After anthe unsolv'd argument
TheComing in,aA group of little children, and theirways and chatter, flow in, upon meLike welcome rippling
water o'er my heated nerves and
flesh.Walt WhitmanBased on a TEI P4 XML encoding of Whitman, Walt, After the Argument, a manuscript encoded and made available by the Walt Whitman Archive at http://www.whitmanarchive.org/manuscripts/transcriptions/loc.00001.html.