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Examples for Module 6: Primary sources

1. Jeremy Bentham: JB/088/179

This manuscript page was written by the philosopher and jurist Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832).
This example encodes the prose text as a <div> inside the <body> of a <text> structure. It distinguishes between a main heading ([Limits]), and a subtitle (the phrase Repugnancy, what, in the right margin), by means of the @type attribute on the <head> element. Since this is a prose text, the basic structural units are encoded as paragraphs (<p>), with line breaks encoded as <lb/> where they occur. Note how the usage of <lb/> is pointed out in a comment; although not the formal way to do it (that's what the <tagUsage> element in the header is for -- see TBE module 2. The TEI Header), it may serve as a valid reminder for future encoders. The sixth text line starts with a sequence of a deletion and addition: on is deleted (marked with the <del> tag), and replaced with emane (encoded as <add>). This sequence might as well have been encoded as a whole as a substitution, and wrapped in a <subst> element. This example features another interesting combination of deletion and addition on the penultimate line: the phrase A law which was started as a replacement for the phrase starting with Repugnancy. It was added above the line, but deleted again, without ever becoming an effective replacement. This is reflected in the encoding by encoding the addition first, but marking its contents as deleted:
<!-- ... -->
Repugnancy <del xmlns="">
<add>A law which</add>
</del> may
<!-- ... -->
A final point of interest is the use of empty <gap/> elements to indicate places where the transcriber has deliberately left out text. Often these are deletions that have been crossed out beyond readability. Note, how the reason for these omissions is not stated (which could be done in a @reason attribute).
<head type="main">[Limits]</head>
<head type="sub">Repugnancy, what</head>
<p>When two laws appear to disagree in their<lb/> terms,
<del>it is</del>
a great question is often made<lb/> whether they are or are not repugnant. The<lb/> occasion<del>s</del> on which it is brought upon the carpet<lb/>
<!-- it is the provisional policy of Transcribe Bentham to treat line-end hyphenation in this fashion -->
is generally where the two laws in question<lb/>
the one of them
from a
the other from a superior legislature.<lb/> The question then is
<add>in truth</add>
[properly speaking] a
question<lb/> of constitutional law; but since the word which is<lb/> the subject of it is
one of those which appears to be expressive of the
<hi rend="underline">aspect</hi>
of a superventitious<lb/>
to a primordial one, it seems to have<lb/> some claim to be consider’d here.</p>
<p>Hitherto the <gap/> primordial <del>law</del> <add>provision</add> and the<lb/> superventitious have been consider’d as <del>the</del> emaning<lb/> from the same authority <add>source</add>: so long as this is the case<lb/> the word repugnant may be looked upon as synonymous<lb/> to alterative. Repugnancy <del>
<add>A law which</add>
</del> may accordingly be simply <gap/> revocative or reversive; and in either<lb/> case</p>


[1] Encoding of Manuscripts of Jeremy Bentham, University College London Library: JB/088/179, a manuscript encoded and made available by the Bentham Project of University College London (
[2] Based on a TEI P4 XML encoding of Whitman, Walt, After the Argument, a manuscript encoded and made available by the Walt Whitman Archive at
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